While the pasta is cooking, heat 2 tablespoons of the oil in a large skillet over medium-high heat. Add the cauliflower, shallots, and garlic, and cook, stirring, until the cauliflower is well browned, about 8 minutes. Reduce the heat to medium. Add the remaining 2 tablespoons oil, 2 teaspoons salt, water, vinegar, honey, capers, thyme, bay leaf, fennel seeds, and season with salt and black pepper. Bring to a simmer, cover, and cook until cauliflower is fork tender, about 7 to 8 minutes. Add the raisins, and about 1/2 cup of the pasta cooking water. Add the pasta and simmer for another 5 minutes. Remove from the heat and add parsley. Remove and discard the thyme.